Monthly Archives: February 2012

Happy Veganniversary to Me! And Happy Birthday to the Blog!

It was around this time, Feb 25th to be exact, 2 years ago that from sprouts to supper was born. It was also a few days before I went vegan. I had no idea I was going to go animal free, I thought I was doing a spring cleanse for a few days. It ended up bringing me back to my veg days back in the 90’s. I was a junk food vegetarian then. I thought you needed to have tons of protein, not true! So I ate tons of processed veg food, not cool! Now I know a lot better, and cook a lot healthier. Some of my favorite recipes have been posted to the blog.

Things like Butternut Squash Risotto, BirdSeed Pilaf and Ice Cream. Wow and I almost forgot the Kale Chips – oh so yummy!

So much has changed since then, we lost Pippin, we gained Luke. I left my International Affairs program to get into Health Coaching. I lost my mom and gained a ton of new friends. AND our garden is a lot better than it was 2 years ago.

I want to say a big THANKS! to all of you that read and enjoy my blog! Here’s to another bunch of years! I’m off to celebrate now… Actually I’m off to soak beans for the local Chili Challenge I entered that’s this weekend.

Hasta next week.

Organics Again

Today’s post was going to be about the most awesome heirloom apple trees we got as a gift from Mom & Dad H. but a post today from Marion Nestle’s Food Politics blog got me thinking about organics again.

Calville Blanc D’Hiver

Esopus Spritzenberg 

The argument she was talking about was the production of organic vs. conventional. Some say organic is a more effective production method and yet others would argue that there’s no difference or that conventional is actually more effective.

What I never see in the organic vs. conventional argument is the impact the pesticides have on the health of the farmers that grow conventional produce. Pesticide poising is very real. Just ask Monsanto. They biotech giant was found guilty in France this week of poisoning farmer Paul Francois. a French farmer. Many farmers have tried to sue Monsanto in the past, however, it is very difficult to prove that a specific pesticide caused an illness. Mr. Francois was able to pinpoint his point of exposure when he inhaled Lasso, a weedkiller.(Source: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/13/france-pesticides-monsanto-idUSL5E8DD2S220120213)

After reading this I got curious and checked PubMed for incidents of poisonings in America. Here is what I came up with:

The overarching theme I found was that many farmers were not using the pesticides correctly and as in the French case there were not enough warnings on the dangers of exposure.

Pubmed Search Terms: Farmers Pesticide Poisoning United States
Results: 25


1. BMC Public Health. 2011 Jun 3;11:429.
Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: a cross-sectional survey.

Zhang X, Zhao W, Jing R, Wheeler K, Smith GA, Stallones L, Xiang H.
Source

Southeast University Injury Prevention Research Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. zhangxujun@sina.com
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Pesticide poisoning is an important health problem among Chinese farm workers, but there is a paucity of pesticide poisoning data from China. Using the WHO standard case definition of a possible acute pesticidepoisoning, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of acute work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in Southern China.
METHODS:

A stratified sample of 910 pesticide applicators from two villages in southern China participated in face-to-face interviews. Respondents who self-reported having two or more of a list of sixty-six symptoms within 24 hours afterpesticide application were categorized as having suffered acute pesticide poisoning. The association between the composite behavioral risk score and pesticide poisoning were assessed in a multivariate logistic model.
RESULTS:

A total of 80 (8.8%) pesticide applicators reported an acute work-related pesticide poisoning. The most frequent symptoms among applicators were dermal (11.6%) and nervous system (10.7%) symptoms. Poisoning was more common among women, farmers in poor areas, and applicators without safety training (all p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, age, education, geographic area and the behavioral risk score, farmers without safety training had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.22 (95% CI: 1.86-5.60). The likelihood of acute pesticide poisoning was also significantly associated with number of exposure risk behaviors. A significant "dose-response" relationship between composite behavioral risk scores calculated from 9 pesticides exposure risk behaviors and the log odds of pesticide poisoningprevalence was seen among these Chinese farmers (R2 = 0.9246).
CONCLUSIONS:

This study found that 8.8% of Chinese pesticide applicators suffered acute pesticide poisoning and suggests that pesticide safety training, safe application methods, and precautionary behavioral measures could be effective in reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning.

PMID:
21639910
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3126745
Free PMC Article

2. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010 Jul-Aug;32(4):452-9. Epub 2010 Mar 20.
Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides.

Mackenzie Ross SJ, Brewin CR, Curran HV, Furlong CE, Abraham-Smith KM, Harrison V.
Source

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UnitedKingdom. s.mackenzie-ross@ucl.ac.uk
Abstract

The study aim was to determine whether low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) causes neuropsychological or psychiatric impairment. Methodological weaknesses of earlier studies were addressed by: recruiting participants who had retired on ill health grounds; excluding participants with a history of acute poisoning, medical or psychiatric conditions that might account for ill health; and exploring factors which may render some individuals more vulnerable to the effects of OPs than others. Performance on tests of cognition and mood of 127 exposed sheep farmers (67 working, 60 retired) was compared with 78 unexposed controls (38 working, 40 retired) and published test norms derived from a cross section of several thousand adults in the general population. Over 40% of the exposed cohort reported clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression compared to less than 23% of controls. Exposed subjects performed significantly worse than controls and standardisation samples on tests of memory, response speed, fine motor control, mental flexibility and strategy making, even after controlling for the effects of mood. The pattern was similar for both working and retired groups. The cognitive deficits identified cannot be attributed to mood disorder, malingering, a history of acute exposure or genetic vulnerability in terms of PON1(192) polymorphisms. Results suggest a relationship may exist between low level exposure to organophosphates and impaired neurobehavioural functioning and these findings have implications for working practice and for other occupational groups exposed to OPs such as aviation workers and Gulf War veterans.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
20227490
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3042861
Free PMC Article

3. J Agric Saf Health. 2009 Oct;15(4):327-34.
Pesticide poisoning and respiratory disorders in Colorado farm residents.

Beseler CL, Stallones L.
Source

College of Public Health, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-4395, USA. cbeseler@unmc.edu
Abstract

Respiratory hazards significantly contribute to the burden of occupational disease among farmers. Pesticide exposure has been linked to an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in several farming populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between respiratory symptoms and pesticide poisoning in a cross-sectional survey of farm residents. A total of 761 farm operators and their spouses, representing 479 farms in northeastern Colorado, were recruited from 1993 to 1997. A personal interview asked whether the resident had experienced apesticide poisoning and several respiratory conditions including cough, allergy, wheeze, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). Spirometry testing was performed on 196 individuals. Logistic regression was used to model the association of pesticide poisoning with respiratory conditions, and linear regression was used to model the relationship of pesticide poisoning and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1). In unadjusted models,pesticide poisoning was associated with all four respiratory conditions, and stayed significant in adjusted models of allergies and cough in non-smokers. In age- and gender-adjusted models, pesticide poisoning was significantly associated with lower FVC and FEV1 in current smokers and in those who were not heavy drinkers. Although this study should be reproduced in a larger sample, it suggests that further evaluation of the respiratory effects of pesticideexposure is warranted.

PMID:
19967907
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

4. Ann Epidemiol. 2008 Oct;18(10):768-74. Epub 2008 Aug 9.
A cohort study of pesticide poisoning and depression in Colorado farm residents.

Beseler CL, Stallones L.
Source

Department of Epidemiology, Department of Environmental, Agricultural and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4395, USA. cbeseler@unmc.edu.
Abstract
PURPOSE:

Depressive symptoms have been associated with pesticide poisoning among farmers in cross-sectional studies, but no longitudinal studies have assessed the long-term influence of poisoning on depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to describe the associations between pesticide poisoning and depressive symptoms in a cohort of farm residents.
METHODS:

Farm operators and their spouses were recruited in 1993 from farm truck registrations using stratified probability sampling. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to evaluate depression in participants using generalized estimating equations. Baseline self-reported pesticide poisoning was the exposure of interest in longitudinal analyses.
RESULTS:

Pesticide poisoning was significantly associated with depression in three years of follow-up after adjusting for age, gender, and marital status (odds ratio [OR] 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-5.58). Depression remained elevated after adjusting for health, decreased income, and increased debt (OR 2.00; CI 0.91-4.39) and was primarily due to significant associations with the symptoms being bothered by things (OR 3.29; CI 1.95-5.55) and feeling everything was an effort (OR 1.93; CI 1.14-3.27).
CONCLUSIONS:

Feeling bothered and that everything was an effort were persistently associated with a history ofpesticide poisoning, supportive of the hypothesis that prolonged irritability may result from pesticide poisoning.

PMID:
18693039
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Am J Ind Med. 2008 Dec;51(12):883-98.
Acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in the United States, 1998-2005.

Calvert GM, Karnik J, Mehler L, Beckman J, Morrissey B, Sievert J, Barrett R, Lackovic M, Mabee L, Schwartz A, Mitchell Y,Moraga-McHaley S.
Source

Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA. jac6@cdc.gov
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Approximately 75% of pesticide usage in the United States occurs in agriculture. As such, agricultural workers are at greater risk of pesticide exposure than non-agricultural workers. However, the magnitude, characteristics and trend of acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers are unknown.
METHODS:

We identified acute pesticide poisoning cases in agricultural workers between the ages of 15 and 64 years that occurred from 1998 to 2005. The California Department of Pesticide Regulation and the SENSOR-Pesticidesprogram provided the cases. Acute occupational pesticide poisoning incidence rates (IR) for those employed in agriculture were calculated, as were incidence rate ratios (IRR) among agricultural workers relative to non-agricultural workers.
RESULTS:

Of the 3,271 cases included in the analysis, 2,334 (71%) were employed as farmworkers. The remaining cases were employed as processing/packing plant workers (12%), farmers (3%), and other miscellaneous agricultural workers (19%). The majority of cases had low severity illness (N = 2,848, 87%), while 402 (12%) were of medium severity and 20 (0.6%) were of high severity. One case was fatal. Rates of illness among various agricultural worker categories were highly variable but all, except farmers, showed risk for agricultural workers greater than risk for non-agricultural workers by an order of magnitude or more. Also, the rate among female agricultural workers was almost twofold higher compared to males.
CONCLUSION:

The findings from this study suggest that acute pesticide poisoning in the agricultural industry continues to be an important problem. These findings reinforce the need for heightened efforts to better protect farmworkers from pesticide exposure.

Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID:
18666136
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

6. Agric Hist. 2008;82(4):468-95.
“The horizon opened up very greatly”: Leland O. Howard and the transition to chemical insecticides in the United States, 1894-1927.

McWilliams JE.
Abstract

The transition to synthetic chemicals as a popular method of insect control in the United States was one of the most critical developments in the history of American agriculture. Historians of agriculture have effectively identified the rise and charted the dominance of early chemical insecticides as they came to define commercial agriculture between the emergence of Paris green in the 1870s and the popularity of DDT in the 1940s and beyond. Less understood, however, are the underlying mechanics of this transition. this article thus takes up the basic question of how farmers and entomologists who were once dedicated to an impressively wide range of insect control options ultimately settled on the promise of a chemically driven approach to managing destructive insects. Central to this investigation is an emphasis on the bureaucratic maneuverings of Leland O. Howard, who headed the Bureau of Entomology from 1894 to 1927. Like most entomologists of his era, Howard was theoretically interested in pursuing a wide variety of control methods–biological, chemical, and cultural included. In the end, however, he employed several tactics to streamline the government’s efforts to almost exclusively support arsenic and lead-based chemical insecticides as the most commercially viable form of insect control. While Howard in no way “caused” the national turn to chemicals, this article charts the pivotal role he played in fostering that outcome.

PMID:
19266680
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

7. J Agric Saf Health. 2006 May;12(2):101-16.
High pesticide exposure events among farmers and spouses enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study.

Bell EM, Sandler DP, Alavanja MC.
Source

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, USA. emb05@health.state.ny.us
Abstract

We completed a nested case-control analysis of factors associated with reporting a high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) by pesticide applicators and spouses during the five years since enrollment in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Cases and controls were identified from the 16,415 private pesticide applicators and 14,045 spouses with completed five-year follow-up interviews as of October 2000. Among the applicators, 306 cases with at least one HPEE in the five years since enrollment and 612 controls, randomly selected from those without a reported HPEE, were identified for analysis. Among the spouses, 63 cases were identified and 126 controls were selected. Risk for a new HPEE was increased among applicators reporting at enrollment ever having an HPEE with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.8 (95% CI: 2.7, 5.3). Compared to applicators who applied pesticides fewer than 5 days per year, the ORs ranged from 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.2) for 6 to 10 days per year to 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.6) for more than 20 application days per year. The incidence of HPEE among Iowa applicators was much greater (8.8/1000 applicators) than among North Carolina applicators (2.0/1000). Spouses reported fewer HPEEs compared to applicators (2/1000 spouses). Overall, the observed risk factors for new HPEEs among applicators are similar to risk factors observed in previous cross-sectional analyses of HPEE history. Further, only 13% of applicators and 22% of spouses with symptoms resulting from HPEE sought medical care, suggesting that pesticide poisoning surveillance data may seriously underreport the frequency of such events.

PMID:
16724787
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

8. Rev Environ Health. 2006 Jan-Mar;21(1):57-67.
Methyl parathion: an organophosphate insecticide not quite forgotten.

Jaga K, Dharmani C.
Source

Mount Sinai School Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, 1425 Madison Ave, New York, New York 10029, USA. Kushik.Jaga@Va.med.gov
Abstract

Methyl parathion (MP), a toxic organophosphate insecticide approved for outdoor use only, is classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a Category Ia (extremely toxic) and by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) as a Toxicity Category I (most toxic) insecticide. In several U.S. states in the late 1980s and early 1990s, toxic exposures were created by the illegal use of MP indoors by uncertified pest control operators. As the health effects of MP exposure became evident with increasing public awareness, intervention by the U.S. government, in collaboration with several agencies and public initiatives, led to investigations of MP exposure. After evidence of MP metabolites from urine samples confirmed the exposure, in 1998 the indoor use of MP was banned in the U.S. to protect human health, especially that of children, and the environment. Toxic exposures to MP also occurred in developing countries. In El Salvador, occupational exposure to MP in farmers introduced environmental exposures among agricultural families, who presented with the cholinergic features of MP toxicity. Suicidal MP poisoning was reported in Nepal. A fatal accidental poisoning in children in Peru reflected the serious health risk of pesticides in developing countries. The negligence of pesticide exporters raised human rights issues over the tragedy. Nevertheless, MP exposure remains a potential health risk in both the U.S. and the developing world. Preventive measures in reducing the use of toxic chemicals should be taken seriously to protect human health and the environment.

PMID:
16700430
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

9. J Agromedicine. 2006;11(3-4):107-12.
Suicide and potential occupational exposure to pesticides, Colorado 1990-1999.

Stallones L.
Source

Colorado Injury Control Research Center, Department of Psychology, Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO 80523-1876, USA. USA. lorann.stallones@colostate.edu
Abstract

A number of occupational studies have reported high rates of suicide among selected occupations, including farmers. Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of suicide. The purpose of this study is to describe suicide among individuals potentially exposed to pesticides through their occupation. Data from Colorado death certificate files for the period 1990-1999 were obtained. Eligible records were those individuals who were Colorado residents at the time of death who had an occupation listed on their death certificates. Cases had suicide listed as the primary cause of death on the death certificates. The comparison group included Colorado residents who died from any cause during the same period other than cancer, mental disorders and injuries. A total of 4,991 suicide deaths were included and a total of 107,692 other deaths served as the comparison group. Occupations considered pesticideexposed included: veterinarians; pest control occupations; farmers and farm workers; farm managers and supervisors; marine life cultivators; nursery workers; groundskeepers and gardeners; animal caretakers; graders, sorters and inspectors of agricultural products; and forestry workers, supervisors and loggers. All other occupational categories were coded as unexposed. Logistic regression was used to compare the groups, separately for males and females. After controlling for age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, years of education, and marital status, males who were in pesticideexposed occupations had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.14; 95% confidence interval 0.97, 1.34) and females inpesticide exposed occupations also had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.98; 95% confidence interval 1.01, 3.88).

PMID:
19274902
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

10 J Agromedicine. 2006;11(3-4):35-46.
Structural equation modeling of the relationships between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms and safety behaviors among Colorado farm residents.

Beseler CL, Stallones L.
Source

Mailman School of Public Health. Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. clb2119@columbia.edu
Abstract
PURPOSE:

To use structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the theory that a past pesticide poisoning may act as a mediator in the relationship between depression and safety practices. Depression has been associated with pesticidepoisoning and was more strongly associated with safety behaviors than workload, social support or health status of farm residents in a previously published report.
METHODS:

A cross-sectional survey of farmers and their spouses was conducted in eight counties in northeastern Colorado. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to identify symptoms most correlated with risk factors for depression and safety practices. SEM was used to examine theoretical causal models of the relationship between depression and poor health, financial difficulties, a history of pesticide poisoning, and safety practices.
RESULTS:

Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors in the CES-D scale. The SEM showed that poor health, financial difficulties and a history of pesticide poisoning significantly explained the depressive symptoms. Models with an excellent fit for the safety behaviors resulted when modeling the probability that the pesticide poisoning preceded depression, but no fit was possible when reversing the direction and modeling depression preceding pesticidepoisoning.
CONCLUSIONS:

Specific depressive symptoms appeared to be significantly associated with primarily animal handling and farm machinery. The order of events, based on SEM results, was a pesticide poisoning preceding depressed mood in relation to safety behaviors.

PMID:
19274896
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Apr;15(4):279-85.
Mortality among participants in the agricultural health study.

Blair A, Sandler DP, Tarone R, Lubin J, Thomas K, Hoppin JA, Samanic C, Coble J, Kamel F, Knott C, Dosemeci M, Zahm SH,Lynch CF, Rothman N, Alavanja MC.
Source

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA. blaira@mail.nih.gov
Abstract
PURPOSE:

This analysis of the Agricultural Health Study cohort assesses the mortality experience of licensedpesticide applicators and their spouses.
METHODS:

This report is based on 52,393 private applicators (who are mostly farmers) and 32,345 spouses of farmersin Iowa and North Carolina. At enrollment, each pesticide applicator completed a 21-page enrollment questionnaire. Mortality assessment from enrollment (1994-1997) through 2000 provided an average follow-up of about 5.3 years, 447,154 person-years, and 2055 deaths.
RESULTS:

Compared with the general population in the two states, the cohort experienced a very low mortality rate. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for total mortality, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, COPD, total cancer, and cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and lung were 0.6 or lower for both farmers and spouses. These deficits varied little by farm size, type of crops or livestock on the farm, years of handling pesticides, holding a non-farm job, or length of follow up. SMRs among ever smokers were not as low as among never smokers, but were still less than 1.0 for all smoking-related causes of death. No statistically significant excesses occurred, but slightly elevated SMRs, or those near 1.0, were noted for diseases that have been associated with farming in previous studies.
CONCLUSIONS:

Several factors may contribute to the low mortality observed in this population, including the healthy worker effect typically seen in cohorts of working populations (which may decline in future years), a short follow-up interval, and a healthier lifestyle manifested through lower cigarette use and an occupation that has traditionally required high levels of physical activity.

PMID:
15780775
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Jul;112(10):1080-4.
Associations between plasma DDE levels and immunologic measures in African-American farmers in North Carolina.

Cooper GS, Martin SA, Longnecker MP, Sandler DP, Germolec DR.
Source

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Abstract

Experimental studies in rodents demonstrate evidence of immunosuppressive effects of dietary exposure to DDT [2,2-bis((italic)p(/italic)-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], but human data pertaining to immunomodulating effects of DDT exposure are limited. In this study we examined the association between the persistent organochlorine breakdown product 1,1-dichloro-2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene p,p’-DDE) and immunologic measures using blood samples in a relatively highly exposed population of farmers in the United States. Levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG and the prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in relation to plasma p,p’-DDE levels were evaluated in samples from 137 African-American male farmers (30-88 years of age; median, 64 years). Participants were recruited through black churches in four rural counties in eastern North Carolina. Data collection included a telephone interview pertaining to farming practices and health history, and one blood sample was collected from each participant. Linear and logistic regression, adjusting for age, cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking status, and years of any kind of pesticide use, was used to assess the association between immunologic parameters and plasma levels of p,p’-DDE. The median plasma p,p’-DDE concentration was 7.7 microg/L (range, 0.6-77.4 microg/L). There was no association between p,p’-DDE and IgA in any of the models. IgG levels decreased with increasing p,p’-DDE levels, with a statistically significant decrease of approximately 50% in the highest two categories of exposure (greater than or equal to 6.0 microg/L) compared with values of or = 12.0 microg/L compared with < 3.0 microg/L p,p'-DDE), but this difference was not statistically significant. These analyses provide evidence that p,p'-DDE modulates immune responses in humans.

PMID:
15238281
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1247381
Free PMC Article

13. J Occup Environ Med. 2003 Oct;45(10):1079-86.
Safety practices, neurological symptoms, and pesticide poisoning.

Beseler C, Stallones L.
Source

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526-1876, USA.
Abstract

Depression, anxiety, inability to concentrate, and spatial disorientation associated with pesticide poisoning may influence farmers’ ability to comply with established safety procedures. The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship between safety practices, neurological symptoms, and pesticide poisoning. A survey of farm residents was conducted in an eight-county area in Colorado. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine associations between safety practices, neurological symptoms, and previous pesticide poisoning. A number of safety practices were associated with the following neurological symptoms: difficulty concentrating; feeling irritable; relatives noticing memory difficulties; and difficulty understanding reading materials. The associations between safety practices and neurological symptoms were increased in the presence of pesticide poisoning. Factors associated with failure to engage in established safety practices in this study were neurological symptoms.

PMID:
14534450
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

14. Environ Res. 2002 Oct;90(2):89-97.
Pesticide illness, farm practices, and neurological symptoms among farm residents in Colorado.

Stallones L, Beseler C.
Source

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1876, USA.
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between pesticides and neurological symptoms among a population exposed to organophosphate chemicals as a result of agricultural use. Chronic sequelae of acute pesticidepoisoning from organophosphate compounds include a variety of neurological symptoms including restlessness, irritability, and trouble sleeping. Individuals who have had an acute pesticide poisoning have been reported to suffer a wide range of neurological symptoms that occur from weeks to months after the initial episode. Data for this study came from a cross-sectional survey of farmers and their spouses conducted in an eight-county area in north-eastern Colorado. Neurological characteristics were assessed to determine their relationship with previously reported pesticide-related illnesses. Symptoms that were significantly associated with a previous poisoning were difficulty concentrating [OR 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 3.50]; relatives noticing person had trouble remembering things (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.47, 4.39); making notes to remember things (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.20, 3.97); finding it hard to understand the meaning of newspapers, magazines, and books (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.01, 3.60); felt irritable (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08, 3.12); felt depressed (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.65, 4.81); had heart palpitations without exertion (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.22, 6.54); sleeping more than usual (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.95, 6.58); difficulty moving fingers or grasping things (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.06, 3.24); and headaches at least once a week (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.06, 3.24). Stepwise regression was used to identify the best explanatory model of pesticide-related illness. Variables that were associated with increased odds of illness were being male, being depressed, sleeping too much, and using crop organophosphates.

PMID:
12483798
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Ann Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;12(6):389-94.
Pesticide poisoning and depressive symptoms among farm residents.

Stallones L, Beseler C.
Source

Department of Psychology, Colorado Injury Control Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1776, USA.
Abstract
PURPOSE:

The purpose of the study presented is to evaluate the association between pesticides and depressive symptoms among a population exposed to chemicals as a result of agricultural use. Chronic sequelae of acutepesticide poisoning from organophosphate compounds may include anxiety and depression. In some states, farmershave been reported to have higher rates of depression than other population groups. Little work has been done to describe the effects of exposure to organophosphate compounds and depressive symptoms among the farming population.
METHODS:

Data for this study came from a cross sectional survey of farmers and their spouses conducted in an eight county area in northeastern Colorado. Personal interviews were conducted with the study participants. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Pesticides applied on the farms were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression was used to model the relationship between depression and pesticide-related illness in a stratified analysis.
RESULTS:

Between 1992-1997, 761 individuals were enrolled in this cross sectional survey. Adjusting for a number of potential confounders, the odds ratio for depression associated with pesticide-related illness was 5.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.56-13.44].
CONCLUSIONS:

Exposure to pesticides at a high enough concentration to cause self reported poisoning symptoms was associated with high depressive symptoms independently of other known risk factors for depression among farm residents.

PMID:
12160597
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

16. J Agric Saf Health. 2002 May;8(2):199-214.
Current health effects of agricultural work: respiratory disease, cancer, reproductive effects, musculoskeletal injuries, and pesticide-related illnesses.

Kirkhorn SR, Schenker MB.
Source

Occupational Health Resources, Mankato, Minnesota 56001, USA. kirkhorn.steven@mayo.edu
Abstract

Agriculture has experienced major bio-technological advances and economic and socio-cultural disruptions since the publication of “Agriculture at Risk” in 1988. At that time, it was recognized that there were acute needs in the prevention of musculoskeletal syndromes and injuries, agricultural respiratory disease, noise-induced hearing loss,pesticide-related illnesses, and concerns regarding the excesses of cancers noted in epidemiological studies offarmers. In this article, we discuss the progress made in identification of new respiratory syndromes related to confined animal feeding operations, pesticide-related illnesses, cancers implicating agricultural exposures, and ergonomics in agriculture. The focus is on the current state of knowledge in these areas, the author’s recommendations for further improvement in research techniques, and the potential application of this information to improve human health in production agriculture nationwide.

PMID:
12046806
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

17. Cancer Causes Control. 2001 Aug;12(6):509-17.
Agricultural use of organophosphate pesticides and the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma among male farmers (United States).

Waddell BL, Zahm SH, Baris D, Weisenburger DD, Holmes F, Burmeister LF, Cantor KP, Blair A.
Source

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

Data from three population-based case-control studies conducted in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota were pooled to evaluate the relationship between the use of organophosphate pesticides and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) among white male farmers.
METHODS:

The data set included 748 cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and 2236 population-based controls. Telephone or in-person interviews were utilized to obtain information on the use of pesticides. Odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age, state of residence, and respondent status, as well as other pesticide use where appropriate, were estimated by logistic regression.
RESULTS:

Use of organophosphate pesticides was associated with a statistically significant 50% increased risk of NHL, but direct interviews showed a significantly lower risk (OR = 1.2) than proxy interviews (OR = 3.0). Among direct interviews the risk of small lymphocytic lymphoma increased with diazinon use (OR = 2.8), after adjustment for otherpesticide exposures.
CONCLUSIONS:

Although we found associations between the risk of NHL and several groupings and specific organophosphate pesticides, larger risks from proxy respondents complicate interpretation. Associations, however, between reported use of diazinon and NHL, particularly diffuse and small lymphocytic lymphoma, among subjects providing direct interviews are not easily discounted.

PMID:
11519759
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

18. Risk Anal. 1999 Apr;19(2):283-94.
Adverse health experiences, environmental attitudes, and pesticide usage behavior of farm operators.

Lichtenberg E, Zimmerman R.
Source

University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College Park 20742, USA.
Abstract

Water pollution from agricultural pesticides continues to be a public concern. Given that the use of such pesticides on the farm is largely governed by voluntary behavior, it is important to understand what drives farmer behavior. Health belief models in public health and social psychology argue that persons who have adverse health experiences are likely to undertake preventive behavior. An analogous hypothesis set was tested here: farmers who believe they have had adverse health experiences from pesticides are likely to have heightened concerns about pesticides and are more likely to take greater precautions in dealing with pesticides. This work is based on an original survey of a population of 2700 corn and soybean growers in Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania using the U.S. Department of Agriculture data base. It was designed as a mail survey with telephone follow-up, and resulted in a 60 percent response rate. Farm operators report experiencing adverse health problems they believe are associated with pesticides that is equivalent to an incidence rate that is higher than the reported incidence of occupational pesticide poisonings, but similar to the reported incidence of all pesticide poisonings. Farmers who report experiencing such problems have more heightened concerns about water pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and illness and injury from mixing, loading, and applyingpesticides than farmers who have not experienced such problems. Farmers who report experiencing such problems also are more likely to report using alternative pest management practices than farmers who do not report having such problems. This implies that farmers who have had such experiences do care about the effects of application and do engage in alternative means of pest management, which at least involve the reduction in pesticide use.

PMID:
10765405
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

19. Occup Environ Med. 1999 Jan;56(1):14-21.
Mortality in a cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida.

Fleming LE, Bean JA, Rudolph M, Hamilton K.
Source

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, USA. lfleming@mednet.med.miami.edu
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

Although the primary hazard to humans associated with pesticide exposure is acute poisoning, there has been considerable concern surrounding the possibility of cancer and other chronic health effects in humans. Given the huge volume of pesticides now used throughout the world, as well as environmental and food residue contamination leading to chronic low level exposure, the study of possible chronic human health effects is important.
METHODS:

This was a retrospective cohort study, analysed by general standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of licensedpesticide applicators in Florida compared with the general population of Florida. A cohort of 33,658 (10% female) licensed pesticide applicators assembled through extensive data linkages yielded 1874 deaths with 320,250 person-years from 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1993.
RESULTS:

The pesticide applicators were consistently and significantly healthier than the general population of Florida. As with many occupational cohorts, the risks of cardiovascular disease and of diseases associated with alcohol and tobacco use were significantly lower, even in the subpopulations–for example, men, women, and licence subcategories. Among male applicators, prostate cancer mortality (SMR 2.38 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.83 to 3.04) was significantly increased. No cases of soft tissue sarcoma were confirmed in this cohort, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma was not increased. The number of female applicators was small, as were the numbers of deaths. Mortality from cervical cancer and breast cancer was not increased. Additional subcohort and exposure analyses were performed.
CONCLUSIONS:

Consistent with previous publications on farmers but at odds with current theories about the protective effects of vitamin D, prostate cancer was increased in these pesticide applicators. Female breast cancer was not increased despite theories linking risk of breast cancer with exposure to oestrogen disruptors–such as the organochlorines. The lack of cases of soft tissue sarcoma is at odds with previous publications associating the use of the phenoxy herbicides with an increased risk of these cancers.

PMID:
10341741
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1757646
Free PMC Article

20. Am J Ind Med. 1997 Nov;32(5):487-96.
Long-term use of organophosphates and neuropsychological performance.

Fiedler N, Kipen H, Kelly-McNeil K, Fenske R.
Source

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, USA. Nfiedler@eohsi.rutgers.edu
Abstract

This study evaluated neuropsychological effects due to chronic organophosphate use among farmers with no history of acute poisoning. Fifty-seven male tree fruit farmers (exposed) were compared with 42 age-matched male cranberry/blueberry growers and hardware store owners (unexposed). Univariate analyses of covariance (reading test as covariate) comparing exposed and unexposed subjects revealed significantly slower reaction time. No other significant differences were noted on tests of concentration, visuomotor skills, memory, expressive language, or mood. Based on an exposure metric derived from detailed exposure histories, farmers were divided into high exposure (n = 40) and low exposure (n = 59) groups, and their neuropsychological performance was compared. Analysis of covariance with age and reading test score as covariates revealed that the high exposure group had significantly slower reaction time, dominant hand. Long-term use of organophosphates without evidence of an acute poisoning episode appears to produce, at most, subtle changes in neuropsychological performance.

PMID:
9327072
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

21. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1991;122:81-109.
Pesticide personal protective clothing.

Branson DH, Sweeney M.
Source

Department of Design, Housing and Merchandising, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078-0337.
Abstract

A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work withpesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticidebarrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric’s pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new “waterproof breathable” fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of fabrics. Clothing evaluation studies have shown that protective clothing and coveralls of various materials and designs were effective in reducing exposure. Results of some of these studies suggested that the farmer’s typical work clothing was more effective than fabric penetration results suggested. This apparent conflict is not surprising, given the methods used in both types of research. The field studies use pads placed in various areas under the clothing. This method assumes that exposure is uniform over entire body regions. But fluorescent tracer research has shown that this is not a valid assumption (DeJonge et al. 1985; Fenske 1988). Also, the way in which the pads are attached may make a difference, although no research has examined this issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

PMID:
1771275
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

22. Epidemiology. 1990 Sep;1(5):349-56.
A case-control study of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in eastern Nebraska.

Zahm SH, Weisenburger DD, Babbitt PA, Saal RC, Vaught JB, Cantor KP, Blair A.
Source

Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20892.
Abstract

To evaluate the role of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), we conducted a population-based, case-control study in 66 counties in eastern Nebraska. Telephone interviews were conducted with 201 white men diagnosed with NHL between July 1, 1983, and June 30, 1986, and with 725 controls. There was a 50% excess of NHL among men who mixed or applied 2,4-D (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 2.5). The risk of NHL increased with the average frequency of use to over threefold for those exposed 20 or more days per year (p for trend = 0.051). Adjusting for use of organophosphate insecticides lowered the risk estimate for frequent users (OR = 1.8), but adjustment for fungicide use increased the risk estimate (OR = 4.5). Simultaneous adjustment for organophosphates and fungicides yielded an OR of 3.1 for farmers who mixed or applied 2,4-D more than 20 days per year. Risk also increased with degree of exposure, as indicated by application method and time spent in contaminated clothing, but not with the number of years of 2,4-D use or failure to use protective equipment. Although other pesticides, especially organophosphate insecticides, may be related to NHL, the risk associated with 2,4-D does not appear to be explained completely by these other exposures.

PMID:
2078610
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Arch Environ Health. 1990 Jul-Aug;45(4):229-36.
Pesticide food poisoning from contaminated watermelons in California, 1985.

Goldman LR, Smith DF, Neutra RR, Saunders LD, Pond EM, Stratton J, Waller K, Jackson RJ, Kizer KW.
Source

California Department of Health Services, Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology Branch, Emeryville.
Abstract

Aldicarb, a carbamate pesticide, is the most potent pesticide in the market and has a LD50 of 1 mg/kg. In the United States it is illegal to use aldicarb on certain crops, e.g., watermelons, because it is incorporated into the flesh of the fruit. Once an accidental or illegal use of such a potent pesticide occurs, there is no easy way for the agricultural or public health system to protect the populace. This paper describes the impact of one such event upon the health of individuals and the institutions of California. On July 4, 1985, California and other western states experienced the largest known outbreak of food-borne pesticide illness ever to occur in North America. This was attributed to watermelons contaminated through the illegal or accidental use of aldicarb by a few farmers in one part of the state. Within California, a total of 1,376 illnesses resulting from consumption of watermelons was reported to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS). Of the 1,376 illnesses, 77% were classified as being probable or possible carbamate illnesses. Many of the case reports involved multiple illnesses associated with the same melon among unrelated individuals. Seventeen individuals required hospitalization. There were 47 reports of illness involving pregnant women, two of whom reported having subsequent stillbirths. Thirty-five of the remaining pregnant women were followed-up 9 mo after the epidemic; no additional stillbirths were found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

PMID:
2400245
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

24. Iowa Med. 1990 Feb;80(2):73-6.
Cholinesterase risk for Iowa farmers.

Helmers S, Dykstra J, Kemp B.
Source

Osceola Community Hospital, Sibley.
Abstract

Exposure to organophosphate insecticides may pose a significant risk in rural populations. The study involved 71 Iowafarmers and 28 agribusiness workers who underwent serial measurements of serum cholinesterase levels prior to and following exposure to organophosphate containing pesticides.

PMID:
2307567
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Environ Health Perspect. 1978 Apr;23:199-210.
Comparative neurobehavioral study of a polybrominated biphenyl-exposed population in Michigan and a nonexposed group in Wisconsin.

Valciukas JA, Lilis R, Wolff MS, Anderson HA.
Abstract

An analysis of findings regarding the prevalence and time course of symptoms and the results of neurobehavioral testing among Michigan and Wisconsin dairy farmers, is reported. Reviewed are: (1) differences in the prevalence of neurological symptoms at the time of examination; (2) differences in the incidence and time course of symptoms for the period 1972–1976; (3) differences among populations and subgroups (sex and age) regarding performance test scores; (4) correlations between performance test scores and neurological symptoms; and (5) correlations between serum PBB levels as indicators of exposure and performance tests and neurological symptoms.

PMID:
209977
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1637454
Free PMC Article

Feel the Fear and Do It Anyway

Catchy title huh? That’s the name of a book I plan on reading some day. With Valentine’s Day just around the corner everyone is talking about love. But are we all really living a life of love? Yes, you love your family and friends (I hope!) and that’s very important. 


Photo: Stuart Miles
What about the rest of your life? Do you love:

  • Yourself?
  • Getting up in the morning?
  • Your job?
  • Your exercise routine?
  • Your home life?
  • Your sex life?

Do you have a passion for something that would require a major life change? What’s holding you back? 

Photo: hinnamsaisuy
Is it fear of:

  • Upsetting the status quo?
  • Not making a living?
  • Challenging yourself?
  • Challenging others?


Enter that fabulous book tittle: Feel the Fear and Do It Anyway. Sometimes in life you have to say WTF and just do it. Sometimes just asking nicely for the the things you want can work for you, you will be surprised at how often it happens. There is also something to be said about the laws of attraction. Ever notice when you feel good about yourself you attract the right kind of people. Tell me on those days do you feel fearless?

Windowsill Garden and Cooking Demo

We have quite the little windowsill garden growing. It all started with scallions that Jared put into water.

Then it was some celery


And then it was some bok choy

I think it’s pretty cool, he has a few other root things growing that have nice green leaves on top.

This would be a fun project to do with kids since you see pretty quick results. That celery was from a week or 2 ago. The first celery he did is now in a pot with dirt.

We also have a lettuce going, basil and some dandelions.

This was also a very exciting weekend, on Sunday I did my very first cooking demo! I had to submit a YouTube video of a cooking demo for an application to a program I want to get into. So here is the full length version, the version I submitted had to be less than 5 min:

And here’s the recipe:

Dill Cashew Cheese

2 cups soaked cashews
juice of 2 lemons
7 probiotic capsules opened
¼ cup water

Soak cashew for at least 4 hours then rinse and drain. Blend the cashews, lemon juice, and probiotic powder. Add water 1 tbsp at a time until it has the consistency of cream cheese. Put the mixture in a strainer (a nut milk bag or paint strainer is perfect) in a sieve and leave it in a bowl. Give it a little squeeze to get any excess water out and let sit at room temp with a towel covering it for 10 – 24 hours. Chill for at least 2 hours and mix in chopped dill or any other dried or fresh herbs you like.